H3 Chronology

Minting of class 4 continued into 1251. and was then followed by the re-designed class 5a coinage.

Henry knighted Alexander III before the young King married Henry's daughter Margaret in 1251 and, despite Alexander's refusal

to give homage to Henry for Scotland, the two enjoyed a good relationship.

Class 5a pennies continued to be struck throughout 1252, and probably into 1253.

Henry's crusade to the Holy Land never departed, as he was forced to deal with problems in Gascony, where the harsh policies

of the King's lieutenant, Simon de Montfort, had provoked a violent uprising in 1252.


1252 Bury, Apr-Jun: John de Rissebroth succeeded by Randulf le Blund. Jon’s last coins and Randulf’s first are class 5a. (5a3-

5b2 transition).

Probably the last of the 5a coins were minted, followed by 5b and 5c. Some of these may have been minted concurrently rather

than sequentially. Minting of class 5c continued until about 1256.

Anti-Jewish stories involving tales of child sacrifice flourished in the 1250s and, in response, Henry passed the Statute of Jewry

in 1253, which attempted to segregate Jews and enforce the wearing of Jewish badges; it remains unclear to what extent this

statute was actually implemented by Henry.


London: Nicole (Nicholas de Sancto Albano) now dead; his last coins are class 5c.

Jun. 12

Bishop Walter de Kirkham receives authorisation to operate mint. On 27th June dies were supplied for his first coins which

were of late class 5a.

Class 5c pennies were being minted.

With minimal consultation within his court, Henry came to an agreement with the Pope in 1254 that Edmund should be the

next king of Sicily. Innocent urged Henry to send Edmund with an army to reclaim Sicily from Frederick's son Manfred, offering to

contribute to the expenses of the campaign.
H3 Chronology

In 1254, Henry granted Ireland to his son, Edward, on condition that it would never be separated from the Crown.

Class 5c continued to be minted.

Henry had Alexander and Margaret rescued from Edinburgh Castle when they were imprisoned there by a rebellious Scottish

baron in 1255 and took additional measures to manage Alexander's government during the rest of his minority years.

May 8

London and Canterbury: William of Gloucester was appointed, and his first coins were of class 5c.

​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III