​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

H3 Chronology

London: Walter de Brussel was appointed, with his first coins being of class 5c.

Henry attempted to influence the outcomes of the elections in the Holy Roman Empire, which would appoint a new King of the

Romans. Henry backed his brother Richard's candidature, giving donations to his potential supporters in the Empire. Richard

was elected in 1256 with expectations of possibly being crowned the Holy Roman Emperor, but continued to play a major role

in English politics.

Llywelyn ap Gruffudd rebelled against Henry and widespread violence spread across Wales; Henry promised a swift military

response but did not carry through on his threats.

Henry was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money.

John Hardel appointed as a moneyer in London. His first coins are class 5c.

1256-57 - Canterbury: Willem was replaced as moneyer by Walter Adrian. His first coins are 5c3 - i.e. just before sub-class 5d.

1256 saw the transition from 5c to the unusual class 5d pennies.

Jan. 10

Nicholas de Hadlou granted a die at Canterbury; his first coins are of class 5d.

Henry's third daughter, Katherine, was born in 1253 but soon fell ill; she died in 1257 and Henry was distraught.

Between 1243 and 1258, the King assembled two great stockpiles of gold. In 1257, Henry needed to spend the second of these

hoards urgently and, rather than selling the gold quickly and depressing its value, Henry decided to introduce gold pennies into

England, following the popular trend in Italy.

The rare class 5e pennies with their pelleted crownband were struck this year, and followed by class 5f with it's characteristic

thin double crownband.

Henry III orders the production of a twenty pence English coin of gold, unfortunately for Henry the bullion value of the coins

was about 20% higher than the nominal face value, leading to poor circulation as coins were melted down for their gold
H3 Chronology

At the end of 1259, Henry and Eleanor left for Paris to negotiate the final details of a peace treaty with King Louis, escorted by

Simon de Montfort and much of the baronial government. Under the treaty, Henry gave up any claim to his family's lands in the

north of France, but was confirmed as the legitimate ruler of Gascony and various neighbouring territories in the south, giving

homage and recognising Louis as his feudal lord for these possessions.

Henry's son, Edward, initially opposed the revolution, but then allied himself with de Montfort, helping him to pass the radical

Provisions of Westminster in 1259, which introduced further limits on the major barons and local royal officials.

Class 5g pennies continued to be struck for a considerable length of time, probably to 1270.

London mint: John Hardel, who was barred from the mint in 1259 produced 5g coins. Hence class 5g commenced 1259 or

Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other

lands in France in return for King Louis IX of France recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony.


When de Montfort returned to England, Henry, supported by Eleanor, remained in Paris where he seized the opportunity to

reassert royal authority and began to issue royal orders independently of the barons. Henry finally returned to retake power in

England in April 1260, where conflict was brewing between de Clare's forces and those of de Montfort and Edward.

May 27

London, 27 May: David of Enefeld was succeeded by Thomas de Weseham. Davi’s last coins are class 5f; Tomas’ only coins are


A coalition headed by de Montfort, de Clare and Edward briefly seized back control, but within months their baronial council

had collapsed into chaos.