​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

H3 Chronology


Henry continued to publicly support the Provisions of Oxford, but he secretly opened discussions with Pope Urban IV, hoping to

be absolved from the oath he had made at Oxford. In June 1261, the King announced that Rome had released him from his

promises and he promptly held a counter-coup with the support of Edward. He purged the ranks of the sheriffs of his enemies

and seized back control of many of the royal castles.

London: William of Gloucestre was murdered at Southampton. His last coins are class 5g.

By early 1263, Henry's authority had disintegrated and the country slipped back towards open civil war.

In 1263 one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry

persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army.


De Montfort returned to England in April 1263 and convened a council of rebel barons in Oxford to pursue a renewed anti-

Poitevin agenda. Revolt broke out shortly afterwards in the Welsh Marches.


England faced a likely civil war between Henry, backed by Edward, Bigod and the conservative barons, and de Montfort, de

Clare and the radicals. De Montfort marched east with an army and London rose up in revolt. Henry and Eleanor were trapped

in the Tower of London by the rebels; the Queen attempted to escape up the River Thames to join Edward's army at Windsor,

but was forced to retreat by the London crowds.De Montfort took the pair prisoner, and although he maintained a fiction of

ruling in Henry's name, the rebels completely replaced the royal government and household with their own, trusted men.


The Second Barons' War finally broke out in April 1264, when Henry led an army into de Montfort's territories in the Midlands,

and then advanced south-east to re-occupy the important route to France.

May 14

Battle of Lewes.. Despite their numerical superiority, Henry's forces were overwhelmed. His brother Richard was captured, and

Henry and Edward retreated to the local priory and surrendered the following day. Henry was forced to pardon the rebel

barons and reinstate the Provisions of Oxford.

Henry's eldest son, Edward, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham
H3 Chronology

Jan. 29

Bury, 29 Jan: Stephane replaced by John de Burnedisse. Stephane’s only coins and Ion’s first are class 5g.