​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Page updated: Feb 3rd 2017

Class 3d3

Henri (Henri Frowick)​


Obv: hENRICUS REX:III'   

Rev: hEN/RIO/NLV/NDE - En & ND ligated, Pellet on final N.  RIC: 13-14.

Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 74  
Number of different C&T types in BH.......  4  
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin.... L.464 var.
Number of coins of this type in BH.......... 4



Class 3d3

Nicholas of St Albans


Obv: hENRICVS REX III' - with colon before III. Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. Pellets between hair curls.


Rev: NIC/OLE/ONL/VND - with ON & ND ligated, pellet on the N in 3rd and 4th quadrants.

RIC: high, about 15.


Notes: C&T type L.469: 132 of these in the Brussels Hoard, but only six with this mintmark.  Coin ref # M-1259.

Coin Ref # LNRC3190

Class 3d3

Ricard


Obv: hENRICVS REX III' - with colon before III. Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. Pellets between hair curls.


Rev: RIC/ARD/ONL/VND - AR, ON & ND ligated. Pellets on the two "N"s. RIC: 9.5-10.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 7 
Number of different C&T types in BH:  2 (with mm 5) Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... L.471var.
Number of coins of this type in BH.......... 4


Notes: The scarcest moneyer for 3d3 coins in the Brussels Hoard.   Ebay, February 2017. [RP-3014].

Coin Ref # LNHN3012

Coin Ref # LNNC3021

Class 3d3 

David of Enfield


Obv:  Eight-rayed initial mark (mm 5), narrower bust.


Rev: DAV/I ON/LVN/DEN - pellet after I, pellet on 2q "N", and probably on 4th, EN in 4q ligated.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 18  

Number of different C&T types in BH: 6 (with mm 5)   

Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... L.463 

Number of coins of this type in BH..........  4 


Notes:   Images courtesy of DNW, coin auction March 18th 2015, part of lot # 527 (coin #4)

Coin Ref # LNDV3007

Class 3d3

Nicholas of St Albans


Obv: hENRICVS REX III' - with colon before III. Slightly pointed chin.  Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. 


Rev: NIC/OLE/ONL/VND - with ON & ND ligated, pellet on the N in 3rd and 4th quadrants.

RIC: 16-17.


​Notes: C&T type L.469.  The lettering style suggests that the dies for obverse and reverse were made by two different die-cutters. Sold by A&S Gillis, August 2014.

Coin Ref # LNNC3020

Class 3d3

Nicholas of St Albans


Obv: hENRICVS REX III' - with colon before III. Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. Pellets between hair curls.


Rev: NIC/OLE/ONL/VND - with ON & ND ligated, pellet on the N in 3rd and 4th quadrants.

RIC: 10-11.


Notes: C&T type L.469.  Images courtesy of Mark Winiger  [MW-1454].

Coin Ref # LNNC3022

Class 3d3

David of Enfield


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated.   Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.    Pellets between the hair curls. Narrow bust.


Rev: DAV/ION/LVN/DEN - with ON & EN  ligated. In 2nd quadrant a pellet after I, and pellets on the Ns in 2q and 4q.  No ligation in 3q. The RIC count is about 13-14 pellets/quadrant.


Notes: C&T type L.463.    Images courtesy of Mark Winiger  [MW-2637]

Coin Ref # LNDV3006

Coin Ref # LNNC3019

Coin Ref # LNDV3003

Coin Ref # LNDV3002

Coin Ref # LNDV3005

Coin Ref # LNDV3004

Coin Ref # LNNC3018

Coin Ref # LNHN3008

Class 3d3

David of Enfield


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated.   Colon before III. Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.    Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: DAV/ION/LVN/DEN - with ON possibly ligated. In 2nd quadrant no pellet after I, and no pellet on the N.   The RIC count is about 11 pellets/quadrant.


Notes: C&T type L.460 sim.   Coin ref # M-1359

​b) 3d3 with a Colon after REX

Class 3d3

David of Enfield


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated.   Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.    Pellets between the hair curls. Narrow bust.


Rev: DAV/ION/LVN/DEN - with ON & EN  ligated. In 2nd quadrant a pellet after I, and pellets on the Ns in 2q and 4q, possibly 3q also.  No ligation in 3q.

The RIC count is about 11 pellets/quadrant.


Notes: C&T type L.463.    Coin ref # M-961.

Class 3d3

Nicholas of St Albans


Obv: hENRICUS REX III' - with single pellet before III. Slightly pointed chin.  Narrower bust compared to RP-1852.  Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. 


Rev: HIC/OLE/ONL/VND - with ON & ND ligated, pellet on the N in 3rd and 4th quadrants.

RIC: 10.5-11.


Notes: C&T type L.468.     Coin ref # M-1293.

​a) 3d3 with a Single Pellet after REX

Class 3d3/3d1 mule

Henry Frowick


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated.   Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.   Pointed chin. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: hEN/RIO/NLV/NDE - with EN and ND ligated. Pellet on 1q N.   High RIC count. The R is of type R1- suggesting a 3d1 reverse.  The RIC count is lower than on some of the 3d3 coins shown - and is about 10 pellets/quadrant.


Notes: C&T type L.452.    Coin ref # M-193.

Class 3d3

David of Enfield


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated.   Colon before III. Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.    Pellets between the hair curls. Narrow bust.


Rev: DAV/ION/LVN/DEN - with EN ligated. Probable pellet on last N.  The RIC count is about 10 pellets/quadrant.


Notes: C&T type L.458.   Coin ref # M-1423

Class 3d3

Nicholas of St Albans


Obv: hENRICVS REX III' - with colon before III. Diagnostic ball-footed R (R2). Initial mark 8-rayed, type mm5. Round eyes. Pellets between hair curls.


Rev: NIC/OLE/ONL/VND - with ON & ND ligated, pellet on the N in 3rd and 4th quadrants.

RIC: 10.5-11.


Notes: C&T type L.469.  Coin ref # M-719.

Class 3d3

David of Enfield


Obv: hENRICVS REX:III' - with NR ligated. Colon before III.  Eight-rayed mintmark type 5.  Ball-footed R2.   Round eyes.    Pellets between the hair curls. Bust is wider than IH-961 specimen.


Rev: DAV/ION/LVN/DEN - with ON ligated.  In 2nd quadrant is a pellet after I, and pellet on N.  

The RIC count at ~ 13 is higher than the IH-961 specimen.   C&T type L.463.


Note: Coin is ex the William Conte collection, ex P. Woodhead; ex Baldwin 7.2.1964. 

Images: © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Accession number:  CM.1467-2001

It is perhaps logical to assume that chronologically 3d3 either falls between coins of class 3d2 and class 4, or was issued at about the same time as the later 3d2 pennies, however the existence of 3d3/3d1 mules suggests that 3d3 coins may have been almost synchronous with 3d2.  


The production of the whole of class 3 took place in a year between late 1249 and late 1250, and 3d2/3d3 would have been produced from around mid 1250 and succeeded or overlapped by Class 4 from around the 29th of September 1250, with the production of Class 5 commencing towards the end of the year.


Inspection of the examples below will show that some coins have thinner busts than others; it may be that the thinner busts are earlier, and that the wider ones, similar to class 4 coins, may be later.


Such eight-rayed class 3d coins are now denoted as 3d3 on this website, and it is recommended that collectors adopt this nomenclature.  ​If these coins were simply left as a variety of 3d2 there would be many collectors who would not know about them.   We would be interested to hear readers views, ​and​ ​images of further good quality examples for display on the website would also be welcome.   ​

​In their 2012 Brussels Hoard study, Churchill and Thomas usefully identified these coins within their 3d2 listings allowing us to see that about 15% of the 3d2 coins in the Brussels Hoard were of this type.  The statistics for the coins they recorded, excluding the few 3d3/3d1 mules, are shown on the right. Class 3d3 coins are known only from the London mint, and these coins are relatively scarce amongst 3d issues.  The quality of the 3d3 die cutting is often high, as seen in class 4.  After the mass production of the provincial period, ending with class 3c, we see a developing increase in quality through class 3d, with particularly fine die-cutting from class 3d2 onwards and continuing through class 4 to some coins of classes 5a & 5b.​

London - New Class 3d3


​3d3 is a new sub-class being proposed by Ian Heavides and website author Robert Page, for further details please see Research Note #2


3d3 pennies have the appearance of a 3d2 except that they have the eight-rayed mintmark as found on class 4 coins. Such coins have been known of from the London mint for quite some time, but have until now not been separately classified.  In Churchill and Thomas's 2012 publication these coins are simply treated as varieties of 3d2, however we feel that the significance of the class 4 type mintmark warrants that these coins should be treated as a separate sub-class. 3d3 is not the earliest 8 rayed mint mark as a cruder version can be found on some class 3b ​and 3bc ​coins of Lincoln, and would most probably have been known to the those concerned with the production of this later type. The Lincoln coins will be addressed at a later date.