​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Four examples of type 4 mintmarks; 3 (above) with type 4.1 have star limbs straddling the top of the crown ornament, and one example, right, of 4.2 where one star limb points vertically downwards.


Wedge-shaped R

​Pointed chin

​Mint mark 4

Note - the terminology 3d1/3d2 was introduced by Churchill & Thomas :- these coins were previously included in class 3c.


Ball footed R

​Pointed chin

​Mint mark 4.2

Note - similar coins but with an eight-rayed mintmark are class 3d3.


Cruder bust compared to 3d1

​Wedge-shaped R

Rounded chin

Mint mark 4


​Wedge-shaped R

Mostly mint mark 4.1, or rarely with a variety of mm5, an eight limbed mintmark.

Can have the bust of class 3b or a narrower bust, transitional between 3b & 3c.

Ball shaped R : Class 3d2​

Wedge-shaped R: 3bc, 3c, or 3d1

Coins with No Sceptre

Classes 3bc, 3c, 3d1, 3d2

Usually mintmark type 4, star with blunt ends: rounded or angular.  

Also note that coins from these classes often have a colon after REX.

Some scarce 3bc pennies have an eight limbed mintmark -though 8-limbed mintmark coins can also be class 3d3.

To differentiate classes, firstly look at the shape of the letter R....