Wedge-shaped R

​Pointed chin

​Mint mark 4

Note - the terminology 3d1/3d2 was introduced by Churchill & Thomas :- these coins were previously included in class 3c.


Ball footed R

​Pointed chin

​Mint mark 4.2

Note - similar coins but with an eight-rayed mintmark are class 3d3.


​Wedge-shaped R

Mostly mint mark 4.1, or rarely with a variety of mm5, an eight limbed mintmark.

Can have the bust of class 3b or a narrower bust, transitional between 3b & 3c.

Ball shaped R : Class 3d2​

Wedge-shaped R: 3bc, 3c, or 3d1

Coins with No Sceptre

Classes 3bc, 3c, 3d1, 3d2

Usually mintmark type 4, star with blunt ends: rounded or angular.  

Also note that coins from these classes often have a colon after REX.

Some scarce 3bc pennies have an eight limbed mintmark -though 8-limbed mintmark coins can also be class 3d3.

To differentiate classes, firstly look at the shape of the letter R....

​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Four examples of type 4 mintmarks; 3 (above) with type 4.1 have star limbs straddling the top of the crown ornament, and one example, right, of 4.2 where one star limb points vertically downwards.


Cruder bust compared to 3d1

​Wedge-shaped R

Rounded chin

Mint mark 4