​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Type Ic - Characterised by sexfoils rather than hexfoils, and with a small triangle above the crownband. The central fleur may not appear distinctly attached to the triangle. Two main types exist based on the presence or absence of a star by the sceptre as shown here.  Relatively scarce.


Type Ia-JN - Double-lined Triangle and Jewelled Crown-band, no shoulders.

Class I 

Xb

Without star: Spink S.6237, with star : S.6238.

Three curls right, but two on the left.

Xa

Xb

Class Ia Types


Class Ia coins, those with a double-lined triangle, may not chronologically be the earliest to have been minted.  Instead, coins having a crown of pellets and arcs similar to those previously issued for John may have been the first.  Further work is needed to sort out the relative sequence of Henry III's Irish issues.   I have sub-divided Class Ia into four basic types depending upon the presence or absence of a jeweled crown-band and/or shoulders:


Spink S.6239


Note that in the latest Spink catalogue (3rd edition, 2015) the illustration labelled S.6237 is actually S.6239.

Type Ib - Singe-lined Triangle and non-jewelled crown-band, typically with shoulders. Must have a proper central fleur rather than three floating pellets. Varieties exist with pierced or non-pierced hexfoils, as shown here.

A rare coin - described in a 1964 BNJ paper .... D. W. Dykes, 'The Coinage of Richard Olof, BNJ XXXIII (1964), 73-9. 39.


These issues are all of a moneyer Ricard at Dublin and have been divided into 2 sub-classes based on the V in hENRICVS and DIVE being of Roman type (V) or of Lombardic type (U).     They were most likely issued by Richard Olof in the early years of Edward I. 

Xa

Class IIc  (Three side curls)



This class is defined by having three hair curls at the side of the bust. Normally three curls each side, but a variety exists with three curls one side and two on the other.
 
Spink S.6242.

Class II - all class II coins are characterised by three floating pellets rather than a central fleur. 

Class Id (Double Crownband)

IIa : Coarse appearance, pierced hexfoil.

Class IIa

Page updated 20th November 2017

The above coins all share the common characteristics of having a double-lined triangle and a hexfoil. Some of the coins show pellets in the legend. Spink does not distinguish between the different types, and classifies them all as S.6235.

A Guide to the Irish Henry III Classes

Class IIb  (Diagnostic Jeweled Crown)



Crown shape diagnostic of class IIb. Pellets on crown-band. Also note pierced cinqfoil.  No shoulders.  None of this type were found in the Brussels Hoard, and it is probaby the scarcest of the Irish Henry III classes.

 


Spink S.6241.

Xb

The following illustrations and notes are provided as a guide to the identification of the Henry III Irish pennies.

IIa : Non-pierced hexfoil.

IIa : less coarse appearance.

Realistic Hair Types

- Moneyer Richard Olof, Edward I

The letter "X" is type Xa ---->

Class IId  (Wide shoulders)



Three floating pellets as per other class II coins, two hair curls either side of bust, pierced hexfoil, and, most importantly, wide shoulders.
 
Spink S.6243.

Three curls each side.

Class Ib

Class Ic (Sexfoil types)

Xb

Again, Spink does not distinguish between any varieties of class Ib - all are designated S.6236

​​​The commonest class - characterised by three floating pellets above a crownband with small triangle, a hexfoil which can be pierced or non-pierced, two hair curls either side of the bust, and usually a coarser appearance than class I coins.


Xb

Spink S.6240



Type Ia-JS - Double-lined Triangle and Jewelled Crown-band, with shoulders.

Xa

Class I coins are distinguished from class II by the presence of a central fleur attached to the crownband, instead of three "floating" pellets above the crownband.  The letter "X" is type Xa, whereas Class II coins normally have type Xb.

Type Ia-PS - Double-lined Triangle and Plain Crown-band, with shoulders.

Type Ia-PN - Double-lined Triangle and Plain Crown-band, no shoulders.

Xb

Type Id -  Easily recognised by the shape of the crown which is different to all the other Henry III classes, and is somewhat similar to the preceeding coins of John. Relatively scarce.