Coin ref # LNNN1091

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS RCX    Single high pellet before REX (colon intended?) ."E" of REX appears to be a "C". Pellets on the two "E"s. Caul present. Four pellets under crown, not five. Neat double line of pellets for beard.  Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with pellets on "E"s unclear, also the "N" unclear. ER and AN ligated. A small shape between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants. RIC: 8-10.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... L.2?
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  1

Notes:Images courtesy of Bob Thomas.

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX    Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s, but not on the "N". Caul present. No pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with clear pellets on "E"s, and on the "N". ER and AN ligated. Note presence of a small triangular shape between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants. Scored along one arm of the cross.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: Images courtesy of Bob Thomas.

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX III'    Pellets on the two "E"s and on the N. Colon before REX unclear. No caul.  IM off-center, star has 5 points.  No pellets between the hair curls. Appears to probably have the same obverse die as LNNN1089, but a different reverse die.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with no pellets on "E"s but present on the "N". ER and AN ligated. A small pellet between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: Ex Lord Stewartby collection.  (Spink auction June 2016, Lot # 603). ex H G C Day, collection purchased by Baldwin c.1935. Bt A H Baldwin, January 1952.  

Coin Ref # LNNN1002

This coin is significant in that it clearly does not have the same obverse die as the other two non-caul coins shown above. Hence the absence of a caul on thes ecoins is likely to be more than just a die-maker's mistake on the one die. 

Coin ref # LNNN1107

Coin ref # LNNN1090

Coin ref # LNNN1092

Class 1a Pennies Without Cauls 

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX    Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s. No pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with pellets on "E"s and the "N". ER and AN ligated. Note presence of a small triangular shape between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants. 


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: The obverse is the same as C/T type L3, but reverse type not present in BH. Images courtesy of an anonymous collector [M-136] 

Coin Ref # LNNN1004

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS:REX III'   Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s and on the N.  No caul.   No pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with no pellets on "E"s but present on the "N". ER and AN ligated. A small pellet between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0​

Weight ................................................​  1.26 gm

Notes: Data from the PAS database, item # CAM-94D237. Coin found in Wisbech area of Cambridgeshire. Images provided by a  CC BY attribution licence.


Page updated: Jan 30th 2017

Coin ref # LNNN1050

Class 1a

No Moneyer (Nicole)


Obv:hENRICVS:REX, - note colon before REX. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: ANG/LIE/TER/CI',  AN & ER ligated.

RIC: 7-8.


C&T type: L3


Notes:  Weak'ish strike on head, very rare, one of five remaining in the Brussels Hoard in 2012.  Image courtesy of A H Baldwin & Sons Ltd, London, coin ex Brussels Hoard and sold at Baldwin's Auction #77, Sept. 2012, Lot #2424

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX   C appears to be an E, or a C with interior pellet. Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s, but probably not on the N. Caul present. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIC/TER/CI'/ANG - 1q "C" for "E" error.  ER and AN ligated. A smaller pellet between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants. RIC: 8-9.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes:Images courtesy of Ron Churchill.

Coin Ref # LNNN1005

Class 1a


No Moneyer (Nicole)

Obv:hENRICUS:REX - with pellets on both "E"s.Cross-bar of N has no pellet but is thickened.  No pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: ANG/LIE/TER/CI' - pellet on N, and pellets on both "E"s.


C&T type: N/A - different dies to the four types recorded in the Brussels hoard book.


Notes: Ex Jim Sazama collection. Image courtesy of DNW, coin auction Sept 2014, Lot# 2307

Coin ref # LNNN1033

Coin Ref # LNNN1029

Note: The "Coin Ref #" given below each coin relates to the specific coin not to the type of coin.  It is provided as an aid to communication for anyone wishing to refer to a specific coin on this website.

Class 1a

No Moneyer (Nicole)


Obv:hENRICUS:REX - with pellets on both "E"s and on cross-bar of N, also, unusually, on the X. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: ANG/LIE/TER/CI' - no pellet on N, nor on the "E"s.(Possibly on 1st E?).  The ER & AN ligated.


C&T type: N/A - different  dies to the four types recorded in the Brussels hoard book. 

 

Provenance: The William Conte collection, ex North; ex Spink May 1971; ex Mangakis; ex Spink 6.6.1955; ex Lockett 1197.


Images: © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Accession number:  CM.1326-2001



Henry III : London Mint : Class 1a

​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX   Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s, and on the "N". Caul present.  Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with clear pellet on 2nd "E", unclear on 1st "E", and pellet on the "N". No ligations. Note presence of a pellet between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants. RIC: 7.5-8.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: These obverse and reverse dies not seen in the Brussels Hoard coins. Ex Michael J Edwards Collection, which he donated to Leeds Museum.

Images:  © Leeds Museums and Galleries.​

Coin ref # LNNN1102

INTRODUCTION


The currency reform of 1247 which saw the introduction of the voided long cross coinage was driven not only by the poor state of the existing short cross coinage, but also by the opportunity to profit from the introduction of a new coinage. In fact it was the King's brother, Richard of Cornwall, who was a main benefactor as a result of his arrangement with the king to provide sufficient silver to permit the re-coinage operation. Richard made a loan of 10,000 marks (equivalent to 1.6 million pence) for which he was due to receive half the profits from the re-coinage for 12 years.  The first of these new coins was introduced in November of 1247, class 1a and issued in London only. Minting was extended to Canterbury and Bury shortly afterwards but with a modified legend to show the abbreviated mint name, these being class 1b coins. Both 1a/1b and 1b/1a mules exist. The mints at London and Canterbury were initially under the sole charge of Nicholas of St Albans, but he was joined by a further three moneyers once the re-coinage was well under way.


COIN DESIGN


The new design incorporated a long cross extending to the edges, such that if any part of the cross had been clipped away then the coin would be acceptable for use. On the obverse the absence of a sceptre broke with tradition, and facilitated the easy recognition of the new coinage in comparison to the old, though after the successful changeover to the new coinage a new design in late 1250 saw the re-introduction of the sceptre with class 4 coins.


The use of a long cross on the reverse resulted in a reduction in the space available for the inscription, resulting in usually only enough space for three letters in each quadrant. A way around this limitation was to join together (ligate) some of the letters, which can occasionally result in some initial difficulties in reading the moneyer and mint.  Ligation is not a major factor in class 1a coins, but is more of an issue in later classes where the moneyer and mint are shown. 


It is quite feasible that the very first dies of the 1a were made by the most skilled craftsman in the workshop. As it was a completely new design it is more than possible that the dies and/or a striking therefrom would have been shown to the king and/or his brother.  Once the decision to go ahead had been taken, there would have been a need for speed of production and coin issuing and so various different dies might well have been in production at the same time.  Naturally the very first dies would be of the highest quality and we may expect that standards may have slipped a little under the pressure of production. We certainly see some variation in the quality of the die preparation of the coins illustrated below.  



Coin ref # LNNN1089

Class 1a Pennies With Cauls 

Coin ref # LNNN1101

Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX  Colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s, though first "E" unclear. Also a pellet on the "N". Caul present. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIC/TER/CI'/ANG - pellets on letters unclear.

 RIC: 7.5-8.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: Note the "C" for "E" error on the reverse. These obverse and reverse dies not seen in the Brussels Hoard coins. Ex Michael J Edwards Collection, which he donated to Leeds Museum.

Images:  © Leeds Museums and Galleries.​

Full pennies are shown further down the page; cut halves are on a separate page.

Class 1a

No Moneyer (Nicole)


Obv:hENRICUS:REX - with pellets on both "E"s and on cross-bar of N. Colon before REX. Caul present. Pellets between the hair curls. Obverse text type L6/L7. 


Rev: ANG/LIE/TER/CI' - pellet on N. No ligations (AN and ER are often ligated on class 1a).


C&T type: N/A - different dies to the four types recorded in the Brussels hoard book. 

 

Provenance: The William Conte collection.


Images: © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Accession number:  CM.1325-2001



Class 1a


Obv: hENRICVS REX III'   No colon before REX. Pellets on the two "E"s and the "N". No caul.  IM off-center, star has 5 points. No pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: LIE/TER/CI'/ANG - with no pellets on the "E"s but present on the "N". ER and AN ligated.  Small pellet between the three pellets in each of the four quadrants.  RIC: 8-9  Reverse as C/T type L2.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH......... 5  
... and in the Colchester hoard ................ 1
Number of different C&T types in BH....... 4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin..... n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH..........  0

Notes: Images courtesy of Ron Churchill.

Class 1a

No Moneyer (Nicole)


Obv:hENRICVS REX, with colon before REX. Five pellets under crown. Pellets between the hair curls.


Rev: ANG/LIC/TER/CI'.   Note that the "E" in the 2nd quadrant appears as a "C" due to a die-sinkers error. Also see # LNNN1041.


C&T type: L3


Notes:  This metal detector find with some unfortunate damage has a very similar obverse to the Lot #2424 coin - though the reverse die is a little different. Other than the missing fragment it is in very fine condition. Images courtesy of Halls Hammered Coins.

I note that some dies have omitted the caul over the king's head - these coins may have started to appear shortly later than the initial dies.


The researches of Michael Edwards in the 1970's resulted in him tracing around 26 specimens of the full 1a penny and Edwards estimated there were some 10 obverse and 12 reverse dies including those used for the 1a mules. Churchill and Thomas in their study of the Brussels Hoard  saw only 5 each of 1a, 1a/1b mules and 1b/1a mules with others from the hoard having been dispersed prior to their study. Their rough estimate is that there are probably up to 35 or so in various collections. 1a coins show a significant degree of variability, particularly in the details of the lettering.

Class 1a

No Moneyer (Nicole)


Obv: hENRICVS:REX   5 pellets under crown. Strokes for beard. Colon before REX. Caul present. Pellets on two "E"s and "N".  No pellets between the hair curls.

 

Rev: ANG/LIE/TER/CI' - with AN & ER ligated, and pellets on N, E, E.  C is ether a E or a C with central pellet. (Image unclear).  RIC: 7.


Coins of this class & moneyer in BH.........5   
... and in the Colchester hoard ................1
Number of different C&T types in BH.......4
Churchill & Thomas Type for this coin.....n/a
Number of coins of this type in BH.......... 0
​​

Notes: Images courtesy of UKDFD - a metal detecting find from Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire, and recorded in the UKDFD database during 2008.  [UKDFD-13658].

Coin Ref # LNNN1003

Coin Ref # LNNN1001