​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III 

Mint Marks


The mintmark is to be found at the 12 o’clock position on the obverse and consists of a star and crescent moon on coins on class1 coins and thereafter only a star. These marks on the obverse at the "top" of the coin are actually initial marks, showing where the text starts rather than being related to different mints. They are found on all classes from 1 through 4, and in some cases can be a useful aid to identification.  From class 5 onwards mintmarks were no longer utilised.  The form of the star changes throughout the series although the reason for this is not entirely clear.  It may be simply that new tools for die cutting were issued or the changes may be for some more contrived purpose, and further research on this aspect is ongoing.   The changes of form do not necessarily change at the start of a new class but they can be very helpful in placing/dating coins within the series. As can be seen from the examples illustrated below, differences between some mintmarks are subtle and their identification is not greatly aided by die wear which is frequently encountered.   This site generally uses the nomenclature of Churchill and Thomas, but occasionally I go into a little more detail, in line with the alternative scheme shown below.  This alternative scheme is largely based on research findings by Ian Heavisides and utilises his terminology; I have adopted some of his findings and in due course may adopt further research findings from Ian.  In terms of usefulness as an identification aid, Ian Heavisides’ scheme complements and adds to the significant work of Churchill and Thomas.  Users of this site are encouraged to contact me if they have any interesting observations or comments on mintmarks.