H3 Chronology

Nicholas of St Albans was appointed sole moneyer at London and Canterbury -he remained as sole moneyer until early in the

minting of the new voided long cross pennies.

In 1247 Henry encouraged his relatives to travel to England, where they were rewarded with large estates, largely at the

expense of the English barons. Henry encouraged some to help him on the continent; others acted as mercenaries and

diplomatic agents, or fought on Henry's behalf in European campaigns. Many were given estates along the contested Welsh

Marches, or in Ireland, where they protected the frontiers.

Jun. 13

The Calendar of Patent Rolls contains an entry dated 13 June 1247 in which Henry III grants a licence to his brother, Richard,

Earl of Cornwall, to oversee the new coinage in return for a half-share of the profits.

Jul. 27

it is recorded that Richard had provided 10000 marks of silver for starting the process of producing the Voided Long Cross

coinage, which was scheduled to begin on the following All Saints’ day (1 November).


Last production of short cross pennies.

Dec. 26

The relative rarity of class 1a pennies suggests that they were superseded by class 1b soon after production started, possibly

before the end of 1247. A royal mandate dated 26 December 1247, relating to the mint at Bury, supports this view of the timing.

It instructs that a set of dies for the new coinage be provided to the mint. The new dies would be for striking coins of class 1b,

the first type to be struck at Bury, and they would probably have been available for use at the beginning of 1248.

1248 saw a rapid increase in minting through the opening of the provincial mints. Class 1b early in the year, then 2a, 2b and 3a

coins were produced. During the Easter Term, Henry Frowik was appointed as an additional moneyer at London. His first coins

are of class 3a and are likely to have been struck around June/July, by which time class 2 had apparently come to an end.

Feb. 1

Early in 1248 (between 23 January and 12 February), Gilbert de Bonnington replaced John Chiche as the archbishop’s moneyer

at Canterbury. The earliest coins struck by Gilbert, and the last struck by Ion, are class 1b/2a mules, which would suggest that

1b was in the process of being replaced by 2a at the time of Gilbert’s appointment.

Mar. 15

Responding to a writ of 26 February, nominated officials for the first five of the provincial mints (Exeter, Lincoln, Northampton,

Norwich and Winchester) were presented at the exchequer to take up their respective offices. Four of the five commenced

striking coins of class 2a, but Norwich appears to have started operating a little later, as its first known coins are of class 2b.

The exact starting dates are unknown, but it seems likely that the mints would have been operating before the middle of 1248.
H3 Chronology

Oct. 10

Writs for minting operations at Bristol, Carlisle, Hereford, Ilchester, Newcastle, Shrewsbury, Wallingford and Wilton were

issued on 10 October 1248, and the nominated officials attended the exchequer between the 1 and 8 November 1248 to take

their oaths. The writs relating to the opening of mints at Gloucester, Oxford and York have not yet been traced.

Pennies of classes 3ab, 3b and 3c were minted, with 3c continuing into 1250. 1249 was the only full calendar year that most

provincial mints operated, and so was the peak year for provincial mint production. Bristol, Carlisle, Hereford, Ilchester,

Newcastle, Shrewsbury, Wallingford and Wilton probably started striking January-February 1249. The earliest coins for these

mints are of class 3ab.

Class 3c continued into 1250, and was followed by 3d and then class 4 towards the end of the year. 3c was the last class to be

minted by the provincial mints, though some 3c coins from these mints begin to show 3d traits. 3d coins were not produced in

the provincial mints; they are divided into two types, 3d1 and 3d2, on the basis of the shape of the letter R. 3d2 coins, having

the ball shaped tail on the R, represent a move towards higher quality die engraving typical of class 4 coins. 3d2 coins, and

class 4 coins, typically have a higher number of pellets in each quadrant on the reverse inner circle (The "RIC" count).


Documents calling for the return of dies and assays establish that the provincial mints were closed not later than about

February/March 1250. The latest coins struck by most of the provincial mints are of class 3c, although a small number

apparently ceased operation a little earlier, as they strike pennies only up to class 3bc.


In May-June 1250, two further moneyers, David of Enefeld and Richard Bonaventure, were appointed at London. With Nicole

and Henri, this brought the total to four. Davi commenced striking in class 3c, while Ricard’s first coins are class 3c/3d mules.

Another appointment in May-June 1250 was that of John Terri at Canterbury. However, his first coins are of class 4, indicating

that class 3 ended in 1250. William Cokyn was also appointed during the same period, but another William had been striking at

Canterbury from class 1b/2a, and we are currently unable to differentiate between the coins of the two men.

​The Long Cross Pennies of Henry III